The Brain...


The brain is the center control of the nervous system acting as a highway, delivering messages from the brain to different parts of the body. These vital systems of the body are being performed when the body and other bodily systems are in resting state. These signals from the brain are sent through the nervous system to function body parts, such as thoughts, the way we move our body parts, and even how well you learn and remember things.

Neurons, The Building Blocks​


Structure of a neuron:
1.Soma - The body of the cell which contains the nucleus and much of the chemical machinery common to most cells.
2.Dendrites - Dendrites are the tentacle like structures that branch our of the soma, the dendrites are th parts that specialize in recieving information.
3.Axons - An axon is a large, thin fiber that transmits signals away from the soma and to other neurons or muscle glands.
4.Terminal Buttons - Terminal buttons are small knobs that secrete chemicals called neuro transmitters. Axons end where clusters of terminal buttons form.
5.Synapse - A synapse is a junction where information is transmitted from one neuron to another

Firing of a neuron:
Inside and out of a neuron is fluid that contains positively charged potassium and sodium ions as well as negatively charged chloride ions. When a neuron gets excited from its resting potential statge, channels inside the membrane open up and allow a rush of positively charge sodium ions to enter. Thus the charge created by the sodium flows down the axon to another neuron.

Key Terms:
1.Synaptic clefts - Are the gaps between the terminal buttons of one neuron and the cell membrane of another neuron.
2.Neurotransmitters - Chemicals that transmit information between neurons.


The Sections and Their Compostistion

  1. The Hindbrain (Rhombencephalon)

    1. includes the Cerebellum and two structures found in the lower part of the brainstem...the Medulla and the Pons.
      1. Medulla- attaches to the spinal cord and has charge of largely unconcious but vital functions including circulation, breathing, maintaining muscle tone, and regulating reflexes such as sneezing, coughing, and salivating.
      2. Pons- connects the brainstem with the cerebellum; involves sleep and arousal
      3. Cerebellum- critical to the coordination of movement and to the sense of equilibrium, organizes the sensory information.
        1. alcohol impairs the cerebellum

  1. The Midbrain (Mesencephalon)

    1. the segment of the brainstem that lies betweenthe hindbrain and the forebrain, it includes:
      1. Thalmus- all sensory information (except smells) must pass to get to the cerebral cortex
      2. Colliculi (inferior and superior) – relay stations for auditory and visual input to the brain.
      3. Substantia nigra – motor control, large concentrations of dopamine producing neurons (that are affected in a condition such as Parkinson’s).

  1. The Forebrain (Prosencephalon)


  1. the largest and most complex region of the brain, it includes:
      1. Hypothalmus- involved in the regulation of basic biological needs
      2. Limbic System- a loosely connected network of structures located roughly along the border between the cerebral cortex and deeper subcortical areas; "seat of emotion"
        1. Hippocampus- plays an important role in memory process
        2. Amygdala- playas a central role in the learning of fear reponses
        3. Septum- It supports the experience of pleasure, with a special emphasis on sexual pleasure
      3. The Cerebrum: Complex thought
          1. The Cerebral Cortex is the convoluted puter layer of the cerebrum.
          2. The Cerebral Hemispheres are the right and left halves of the cerebrum.
            1. Each hemisphere is divided into four parts called lobes.


              1. Occipital Lobe
                1. back of the head
                2. Primary Visual Cortex
                3. where most visual signals are sent and visual processing is begun
              2. Parietal Lobe
                1. Primary Somatosensory Cortex (sense of touch)
                2. involved in intigrating visual imput and in monitoring the body's position in space
              3. Temporal Lobe
                1. Primary Auditory Cortex
                2. Wernicke's area
                  1. comprehension of language
                3. Broca's area
                  1. production of speech
              4. Frontal Lobe
                1. Primary Motor Cortex
                  1. more of the motor cortex is allocated to muscle groups that must make relatively precise movements
                2. Prefrontal Cortex
                  1. contributes to an impressive variety of higher order functions, such as memory of temporal sequences, working memory, and reasoning about relations between objects and events

The Importance of the Brain and Fun Facts


Fun facts:

- The brain weight is 3lbs. (adult)
- 100 billion neorons are in the brain but comprises only 10% of the brain.
- The brain can stay alive 4 to 6 minutes without oxygen, after that cells began to die.
- During pregnancy the rate of neuron growth is 250,000 neurons a mintute.
- Your brain is 2% of your total body weight but uses 20% of your body's energy.
- Albert Einsteins brain wieghed 1,230 grams, significantly less than the average human brain of 1,300g to 1,400g.
- Your brain uses less power than a refrigerator light.
- The brain shrinks 0.25% in mass each year following the of 30.
- You brain generates more electronic impulses in one day than all telephones in the world put together.
- People who ride on rollercoaster have a higher chance of having a blood clot in the brain.
- Your brain is 80% water.
- Your brain in more active and thinks more during night than during the day.
Simply put the... the brain is awesome!

Today we went over
    1. neurons and how they transmit information
    2. the different sections and structures of the brain
    3. the importance of the brain
    4. fun facts
Any questions?

Refrences and Relative Links
All pictures used have their original internet address below them! :)

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